Poultry production and production facilities have evolved significantly in recent years.
In some countries, poultry is raised outside in meadows or large sheds. This type of production is quite expensive because it needs a lot of space and resources.
On the other hand, modern poultry production uses expensive equipment and housing to accommodate large numbers of birds in a high density with the minimum amount of labour.
Most of these facilities operate on a contract system, with integrators providing birds, feed, management advice and marketing channels, while the producer provides buildings, equipment and labour.
Turkeys and broilers are housed in widespan, one-story rectangular buildings, with the birds moving freely on a floor covered with deep litter (usually wood shavings).
The litter usually remains too dry for fly breeding to occur, except around leaking waterers, or in cases where improper grading allows surface water to run into the house.
In houses for breeder flocks and for commercial egg production, however, accumulations of moist manure frequently result in serious fly problems.